By Yaacov Ro'i
This booklet is dedicated to the learn and research of the customers for democracy one of the Muslim ethnicities of the Commonwealth of self sustaining States (CIS), either those who have bought complete independence and people ultimate in the Russian Federation. the 19 Western teachers and students from the Muslim international locations and areas of the CIS who give a contribution to this quantity view the institution of democratic associations during this area within the context of a large and complicated diversity of affects, chiefly the Russian/Soviet political legacy; local ethnic political tradition and culture; the Islamic religion; and the turning out to be polarity among Western civilization and the Muslim global.
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Extra resources for Democracy and Pluralism in Muslim Eurasia (Cummings Center Series)
The spirits of the departed influence the living, their fate, their successes, failures and misfortunes and could protect ‘us’ or punish ‘them’. In this way the cult of ancestors emerged. Reverence for the departed and respect for elders are integral features of the Kazakh mind-set. Worship of the sky or sky god, Tengri, stimulated a craving for the sublime, compelling a person to be proud and intransigent and to profess a philosophy incompatible with a slave mentality. Worship of Mother Earth, Umai, strengthened belief in the sanctity of one’s patrimony, or otan,20 and in the succour of good spirits.
Ibid. The tribes were composed of a large number of clans, which in turn would be constituted of dozens and sometimes more than one hundred auls. According to some estimates, in the second half of the 17th and first part of the 18th century, the three zhuzes combined, accounted for 112 clans. The system of zhuz/tribe/clan was based upon genealogical kinship. Under the conditions of political decentralization that prevailed in nomadic society, this system served as the basic mechanism for regulating social relationships.
8. Kh. : istoriia, politika, diplomatiia (Almaty, 1998), pp. 78 and 80. 9. According to Abuseitova, Kazakhstan i Tsentral’naia Aziia, p. 80, their number reached 200,000. By the second decade of the 16th century, the Kazakhs are said to 26 THE DEMOCRATIC TRADITION OF KAZAKHSTAN 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. have numbered one million. Bakhytnur Otarbaeva, ‘A Brief History of the Kazak People’, Nationalities Papers 26 (1993), p. 425. Ethnic groups in the East, including in the Eurasian steppe, lived and developed for centuries without any general appelation.
Democracy and Pluralism in Muslim Eurasia (Cummings Center Series) by Yaacov Ro'i