By Manuela Carneiro da Cunha
Distinguishing tradition from “culture,” the latter being a reflexive knowledge of one’s tradition, Carneiro da Cunha then poses questions corresponding to: What are the cognitive and pragmatic outcomes whilst “culture” and tradition coexist? She exhibits how the note “culture,” as utilized in the anthropological experience, is hired via indigenous humans to differentiate the various interpretations and steer clear of contradictions. “Culture” and Culture bargains a concise and leading edge anthropological learn of an important factor confronted by way of indigenous peoples the area over.
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Extra info for "Culture" and Culture: Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Rights
Literary property, aka copyrights, amounted to giving authors the freedom to sell their creative rights in exclusivity to a publisher. Rather than establishing, as was soon the case in other European countries like Germany, the eternal rights of creators as a moral right against disfigurement of that work, the gist of the matter was its very alienability— hence the figure of property. To achieve this, a considerable amount of rhetoric was deployed to model literary labor on either biologic paternity, or on agricultural work, given that Locke had established the latter as the paradigm for any kind of property.
Christian religions were also made part of this system—so much so that, according to Neumann, Methodist missionaries were killed in 1878 for extending their religion from old converts’ to neophytes’ villages before the necessary inter-village transactions dealing with rights over Christianity were concluded. Rights of cultural adoption could fit in the wide range of other goods that circulated in exchange networks involving marriage or commercial partnerships. The distinction between tangible and intangible items, that is the status of the items themselves, was secondary to the well-established primacy of exchange relations.
As already mentioned, objectifying culture, contrary to the arguments of many anthropologists, did not start with colonialism. British anthropologist Simon Harrison, for one, has reviewed the ever expanding anthropological literature on the multiple and old testimonies of such a reification throughout Melanesia, including the pre-colonial period. Metacultural terms that speak about culture are pervasive in the region. Cultural traits are constituted as objects or quasi-objects as they figure in all kinds of transactions: rights over rituals, songs, magical know-how, or spells can be offered or sold, received as gifts or bought.
"Culture" and Culture: Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Rights by Manuela Carneiro da Cunha