By Josef Palti
The improvement of a crop, and for that reason its health and wellbeing, is usually the results of interaction among organic and environmental elements, as inspired through human corporation. In different phrases, crop health and wellbeing is a hugely complicated affair. This e-book is worried with just one crew of brokers affecting crop future health, the pathogens, and never with animal pests or direct results of physiological or climate components. Even inside of this one staff, although, the interplay of causal brokers with environmental and biotic components is extremely advanced. No much less advanced is the impression of cultural practices at the crop and its well-being. there's most likely no significant perform that doesn't impact assorted features of crop development, which in flip impacts crop/pathogen relationships. therefore tillage se quentially impacts intensity and fee of root improvement, accordingly nutrient uptake, for this reason normal plant measurement and behavior in addition to crop weather and crop susceptibility. Irri gation impacts a majority of these parameters, and allows crop development below assorted macro weather conditions, with the entire resulting implications for affliction improvement. during this ebook an test is made to superimpose one set of complexities, the cul tural practices, on one other such set, crop well-being. this can appear overambitious, to not say foolhardy, except we do not forget that it's been performed through farmers, consciously or unconsciously, ever because the beginnings of agriculture. we're right here mainly attempt ing to rationalize conventional practices, evaluate sleek study at the improvement of extra practices, and determine where of the latter in built-in sickness control.
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Additional info for Cultural Practices and Infectious Crop Diseases
1974). 2 Soil Reaction Most crops can grow within pH limits wider than those conducive to development of their major root pathogens. This affords the farmer a means of combating disease by manipulation of the soil reaction. In general, actinomycetes such as Streptomyces scabies, the cause of potato scab, grow best at soil reactions close to neutral, while fungi are more prevalent in acid than in neutral soils. Black (1968) holds that the reason for this is not so much that fungi grow better under acid conditions as that they are more adaptable to hydrogen-ion activity than bacteria or actinomycetes, and hence suffer less from competition or antagonism under acid conditions.
Thus in the Pacific North-West of the United States it has been realized that peaches, not a major crop in the region, are important overwintering hosts of the Myzus persicae aphid. This aphid in spring picks up the Western Yellows and Beet Yellows viruses from any available source, especially from weeds growing in ditches, and spreads them early in the season to the widely grown sugarbeet crop. Thus the peaches and the beets are evidently incompatible (Henneberry and George 1969). ) as well as in the Antilles (Laville, pers.
1 Texture and Depth The texture of soil depends on the composition and fineness of its mineral components, as well as on the amount and composition of organic matter it contains. Texture and depth, often together with slope, determine the water-holding capacity and temperature relations of the soil. As mentioned in greater detail in the chapter on organic soil amendments, increase in the organic matter content will improve the water-holding capacity of sandy soils, but will ameliorate heavy clay soils by facilitating percolation of water to greater depth.
Cultural Practices and Infectious Crop Diseases by Josef Palti