By David Smith (auth.)
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Additional resources for Criminology for Social Work
Crime is disproportionately committed by unmarried people, by people living in large cities, and by people who have moved house often, and live in areas of high residential mobility. Young people who are strongly attached to their parents or to their school, or who have high educational and occupational aspirations, are less likely to commit crime; young people who do poorly at school, or have friends who are criminals, are more likely to do so. People who believe strongly in the importance of law-abiding behaviour are more likely to practise it.
In an attempt to test these ideas in a British context, Downes ( 1966) found that both aspirations and expectations were realistically low. The adolescent males Downes studied in east London did not seem to suffer from the ills of status frustration and anomie attributed to their American counterparts. They were not members of organised gangs, and there was no sense of a delinquent 'way of life', although delinquent acts were common. They were fatalistic and resigned, rather than angry and embittered, about their experience of school, and the consequent likelihood of low-paid, unglamorous employment.
The brief concluding chapter both summarises the book's main arguments and develops some ideas hinted at earlier, on the implications for practice of various criminological perspectives. It tries to make practical sense of Braithwaite's (1989) concept of 'reintegrative shaming', and to argue that social workers should seek ways of 'feminising' the criminal justice system, to encourage the expression of care and empathic concern as well as of justice, thus contributing to the emergence of more open and less coercive responses to offending.
Criminology for Social Work by David Smith (auth.)