Nikolai M Dronin, Edward G Bellinger's Climate Dependence and Food Problems in Russia, 1900-1990: PDF

By Nikolai M Dronin, Edward G Bellinger

ISBN-10: 963732609X

ISBN-13: 9789637326097

ISBN-10: 9637326103

ISBN-13: 9789637326103

Among 1900 and 1990, there have been a number of sessions of grain and different nutrition shortages in Russia and the previous Soviet Union, a few of which reached catastrophe proportions leading to mass famine and demise on an unheard of scale. New shares of knowledge now not formerly available in addition to conventional authentic and different resources were used to discover the level to which coverage and vagaries in weather conspired to impact agricultural yields. have been the leaders' (Stalin, Krushchev, Brezhnev and Gorbachev) regulations sound in conception yet failed in perform due to unpredictable climate? How did the Soviet peasants react to those alterations? What impression did Soviet agriculture have at the total economic climate of the rustic? those are all questions which are taken into consideration.

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Extra resources for Climate Dependence and Food Problems in Russia, 1900-1990: The Interaction of Climate and Agricultural Policy and Their Effect on Food Problems

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The situation was often rather chaotic in terms of geography, and various commodities disappeared from Soviet shops. 14 Climate Dependence and Food Problems in Russia, 1900–1990 Some experts argue that the permanent food deficit at that time was associated rather with the determination of the state to keep food prices unchanged while the cost of food production and the savings of the population increased considerably. According to USDA calculations, there was a strong correlation between GDP and levels of meat consumption in countries around the world, the only exception being Socialist countries, where a relatively high level of meat consumption did not correspond to economic development (Sedik, 2000).

Only a few statistical data were published in the Soviet Union from 1929 to 1953. Data on crop production for the economic regions are available for 1929 to 1934 (and data on crop areas can be found for 1929 to 1938) (Selskoe khozyastvo SSSR v 1935, 1936). The reliability of these data is questionable. From 1929 onwards, strong political pressure was brought to bear on the statisticians to “improve” grain production by increasing the correction coefficient still further. All the grain figures 24 Climate Dependence and Food Problems in Russia, 1900–1990 published between 1926 and 1932 therefore need to be reduced by an annual percentage that systematically increases over the period.

However, in reality such losses amounted to approximately 15 percent rising to over 30 percent in some years. Until 1936, some allowance was made for losses, though often an inadequate one. From 1937, no harvest losses at all were deducted (Wheatcroft and Davies, 1994a). This approach helped the Soviet authorities to raise the year-plan estimates and thus to force kolkhozes (collective farms) and sovkhozes (state farms) to deliver more grain to the state. In January 1954, Premier Nikita Khrushchev (in a speech devoted to his plan for the cultivation of “virgin” lands) openly acknowledged for the first time the unreliability of agricultural statistics based on “biological yields”.

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Climate Dependence and Food Problems in Russia, 1900-1990: The Interaction of Climate and Agricultural Policy and Their Effect on Food Problems by Nikolai M Dronin, Edward G Bellinger


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