By Raymond J. Lukens Ph. D. (auth.)
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Extra resources for Chemistry of Fungicidal Action
The coverage of a single nozzle is below 2 meters and nozzles are placed on a boom less than a meter apart. The distance an air jet carries particles is quite variable. The stream is distorted by wind speed and direction and the ground speed of the sprayer (COURSHEE, 1967). Moreover, turbulences within the air jet and at the edge shorten the range of travel. The distance a liquid jet travels depends upon the angle of the spray jet, output and speed of the sprayer. COURSHEE (1967) expressed it as follows: R=Kvo•5 U OS where R = range (meters); g = angle of spray jet (degrees); V = spray output (liters per second) at U speed (meters per second); S= sprayer speed (meters per second).
Passage Through Membrane. According to MILLER (1962), compounds pass through membranes by one of five processes: mass movement through pores in the membrane, diffusion through nonselective membranes, diffusion through selectively permeable membranes, transport across membranes at the expense of energy, and engulfment through pinocytosis. Of these, diffusion through selectively permeable membranes and active transport mechanisms are most peculiar to fungicides. 37 How the Toxicant Enters the Cell Ordinarily, charged substances do not penetrate membranes of fungi in the dissociated form but permeate in the undissociated form.
Vettable powders are the most popular form used in plant protection. Particle Size of Water Insoluble Formulations The ability of a fungicide to protect the surface from fungous attacks depends more upon the number of fungicide particles per unit area than upon weight per unit area (WILCOXON and MCCALLAN, 1931). Thus, efficacy increases with decrease in diameter of the fungicide particle. The reduction in particle size aids dilution and improves coverage of the fungicide. However, a minimum particle size is reached beyond which efficacy does not increase and may falloff (BURCHFIELD, 1967).
Chemistry of Fungicidal Action by Raymond J. Lukens Ph. D. (auth.)