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By Krishna Kant Prasad

In response to the author's examine of the topic in addition to his lengthy instructing adventure, this name areas emphasis on readability of suggestions, as well as sensible functions of thermodynamics in metallurgical strategy.

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1. Comparison of changes of Heat and Work in a System (a) Both are transient phenomena. Systems never possess change of heat or work but either or both may occur when a system undergoes a change of state. , y ≠ (∂y/∂x )t dx + (∂y/∂t) x dt – please refer earlier sections). However, there are important differences between the two, which is the foundation of the Second Law, about which we would discuss at an appropriate place. 2. Energy It is a property by possessing which the system gets the capacity to do work.

Therefore, S is a state property or an exact differential. Entropy cannot be easily defined but can be described in terms of entropy increase accompanying a particular process. In an infinitesimal stage of an appreciable process, the entropy increase, dS is given by heat taken up isothermally and reversibly divided by absolute temperature T at which it is absorbed. 2. SIGNIFICANCE OF ENTROPY In the discussion in the last section on Carnot’s Cycle, we have noted that for a full cycle of operation of a reversible heat engine Q1/T1 = Q2/T2 The terms Q1 and Q2 are, by definition, the quantity of heat transferred into the system isothermally at T1 temperature and heat transferred out of the system at T2 temperature, respectively, both operations being performed in reversible manner.

8. Heat Capacities at Constant Pressure and Constant Volume We have defined heat capacities for constant volume and constant pressure processes as follows At constant volume Cv = dE/dT At constant pressure Cp = dH/dT Cp and Cv are interrelated by the work of expansion Cp – Cv = P * dV/dT For an ideal gas, the right hand term would equal the gas constant R. K-gm-mole. From the point of view of metallurgists, Cp is of vital importance as most of the metallurgical processes take place at constant pressure.

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Chemical and Metallurgical Thermodynamics by Krishna Kant Prasad

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