By Barbara Krauthamer
From the overdue eighteenth century in the course of the finish of the Civil battle, Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians obtained, offered, and owned Africans and African americans as slaves, a indisputable fact that continued after the tribes' removing from the Deep South to Indian Territory. The tribes formulated racial and gender ideologies that justified this tradition and marginalized loose black humans within the Indian international locations good after the Civil struggle and slavery had ended. in the course of the finish of the 19th century, ongoing conflicts between Choctaw, Chickasaw, and U.S. lawmakers left untold numbers of former slaves and their descendants within the Indian international locations with out citizenship in both the Indian international locations or the us. during this groundbreaking examine, Barbara Krauthamer rewrites the historical past of southern slavery, emancipation, race, and citizenship to bare the centrality of local American slaveholders and the black humans they enslaved.
Krauthamer's exam of slavery and emancipation highlights the methods Indian women's gender roles replaced with the arriving of slavery and adjusted back after emancipation and divulges advanced dynamics of race that formed the lives of black humans and Indians either ahead of and after removal.
Read or Download Black Slaves, Indian Masters: Slavery, Emancipation, and Citizenship in the Native American South PDF
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Additional resources for Black Slaves, Indian Masters: Slavery, Emancipation, and Citizenship in the Native American South
Transactions between Choctaws, Chickasaws, and their white neighbors brought enslaved women and men into the Indian nations via the transatlantic slave trade, the inter-American slave trade, and the domestic slave trade. African-born women and men who disembarked from the fetid holds of slaving vessels to be sold in southern port cities such as Charleston were purchased by both Indian and Euro-American slaveholders. 46 An enslaved man described only as “a native of Africa” had been enslaved in Georgia before “several changes of masters” landed him in the hands of a Choctaw owner by 1821.
Indian agent posted in the Chickasaw Nation noted that white men were hired as overseers not only on large plantations but also on smaller farms, where they monitored and punished enslaved workers. Choctaw and Chickasaw planters did not rely exclusively on white overseers to direct and correct their slaves. 82 With the expansion of chattel slavery in the southern Indian nations, slaveholders relied on violence as a routine means of punishment, and physical abuse became an uneventful daily occurrence in the lives of the enslaved and slaveholders.
20 race, gender, and power in the deep south 21 Not long after the attack, French authorities dispatched their Choctaw allies to retaliate against the Natchez by sacking their villages and retrieving the African captives. Like the Natchez, Choctaw warriors calculated the Africans’ value in the context of colonial slavery. They assessed their own ability to use the recovered captives to tip the balance of power in their trade and diplomatic relations with the French. Choctaw leaders thus held out for favorable ransoms before handing over the recaptured Africans.
Black Slaves, Indian Masters: Slavery, Emancipation, and Citizenship in the Native American South by Barbara Krauthamer