By Hans Frauenfelder, Kelvin Chu, Robert Philipp (auth.), L. Peliti (eds.)
The workshop "Biologically encouraged Physics" used to be prepared, with the aid of the NATO medical Affairs department and the Directorate-General for technological know-how, study and improvement of the fee of the ecu groups, so one can evaluate a few matters of physics of condensed subject that are encouraged by means of organic difficulties or take care of organic platforms, yet which handle actual questions. the most themes mentioned within the assembly have been: 1. Macromolecules: specifically, proteins and nucleic acids. specified emphasis used to be put on modelling protein folding, the place analogies with disordered structures in con densed subject (glasses, spin glasses) have been urged. it isn't transparent at this aspect even if such analogies may also help in fixing the folding challenge. attention-grabbing difficulties in nucleic acids (in specific DNA) care for the dynamics of semiflexible chains with torsion and the connection among topology and native constitution. They come up from such organic difficulties as DNA packing or supercoiling. 2. Membranes: This box has witnessed fresh development within the knowing of the statistical mechanics of fluctuating versatile sheets, corresponding to lipid bilayers. it seems that one is with reference to figuring out form fluctuations in purple blood cells on a molec ular foundation. Open difficulties come up from phenomena reminiscent of budding or membrane fusion. Experiments on version platforms, reminiscent of vesicle platforms or synthetic lipids, have nice capability. Phenomena happening contained in the membrane (protein diffusion, ionic pumps) have been in basic terms mentioned briefly.
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Extra info for Biologically Inspired Physics
This occurs at another first order transition given by MN 3 v ( 18 ) The origin of this re-entrant phase transition is the Gaussian statistics of the misfolded memories. It can happen by chance, if their number is sufficient, that some combination state really is the true energetic ground state of the system. Typically, however, this state will have a smaller entropy than the folded one since it may require special contortions to satisfy all these unusual interactions. If the 27 kT v RC MG _1_ log (~) M Figure 2.
To make progress, one must make some ans~tz for the kind of replica symmetry breaking to be expected. It is argued that the typical style of replica symmetry breaking to expect in a model without any special sym~etries is that of the Potts glass. This corresponds to one stage of replica symmetry breaking, and the matrix DaB 25 would have the form of a block diagonal matrix with zeros on the diagonal and D on the off diagonal. Other theories of random heteropolymer collapse by Shakhnovich and Gutin, as well as by Garel and Orland, also lead one to expect this sort of replica symmetry breaking.
In addition, the sequence being studied can exist in various mutant forms and, therefore, it will only match up statistically with any particular target. Thus the statistics of carrying out averages reflect this degree of mutation and selection in a database and statements can be made precise by considering averages over all possible databases. It is the noise part of the Hamiltonian that introduces spin glass transitions. We find the thermodynamics for a typical database by evaluating the average of the free energy over possible databases containing M memories.
Biologically Inspired Physics by Hans Frauenfelder, Kelvin Chu, Robert Philipp (auth.), L. Peliti (eds.)