By Hermann Ehrlich
This can be the second one monograph by means of the writer on organic fabrics of marine foundation. The preliminary e-book is devoted to the organic fabrics of marine invertebrates. This paintings is a resource of recent wisdom on biomineralization, biomimetics and fabrics technology with recognize to marine vertebrates. For the 1st time in clinical literature the writer supplies the main coherent research of the character, foundation and evolution of biocomposites and biopolymers remoted from and saw within the wide number of marine vertebrate organisms (fish, reptilian, birds and mammals) and inside of their distinctive hierarchically geared up structural formations. there's a wealth of latest and newly synthesized info, together with dozens of formerly unpublished pictures of detailed marine creatures together with extinct, extant and residing taxa and their biocomposite-based constructions from nano- to micro – and macroscale. This monograph experiences the main correct advances within the marine organic fabrics study box, stating numerous methods being brought and explored through precise glossy laboratories.
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Extra info for Biological Materials of Marine Origin: Invertebrates
Since then, many artificial biomaterials based on, or inspired by, Hench’s glasses have been developed and successfully employed in clinical applications for repairing and replacing parts of the human body. This field is continuously expanding: new processing routes have extended the range of applications toward new and exciting directions in biomedicine (Hench and Polak 2002), many of which still rely on the original Hench’s base formulation, 45S5 Bioglass, which has now become the paradigm of bioactive materials.
Lane of England designed a fracture plate in the early 1900s using steel. Sherman of Pittsburgh modified the Lane plate to reduce the stress concentration by eliminating sharp corners. He used vanadium alloy steel for its toughness and ductility. Subsequently, Stellite R (Co–Cr-based alloy) was found to be the most inert material for implantation by Zierold in 1924. Soon 18-8 (18 w/o Cr, 8 w/o Ni) and 18-8 s Mo (2–4 w/o Mo) stainless steels were introduced for their corrosion resistance, with 18-8 s Mo being especially resistant to corrosion in saline solution.
A noble metal, tantalum, was introduced in 1939, but its poor mechanical properties and difficulties in processing it from the ore made it unpopular in orthopedics, yet it found wide use in neurological and plastic surgery. Smith-Petersen in 1931 designed the first nail with protruding fins to prevent rotation of the femoral head. He used stainless steel but soon changed to Vitallium R . Thornton in 1937 attached a metal plate to the distal end of the Smith-Petersen nail and secured it with screws for better support.
Biological Materials of Marine Origin: Invertebrates by Hermann Ehrlich