By Majid Fakhry
This booklet presents a entire assessment of the existence, occasions, and achievements of Averroes, a twelfth-century Muslim thinker whose rules have been so debatable that his books have been burnt now not as soon as, yet two times. a desirable creation that covers the entire key concerns and underlines the significance of Islamic philosophy as a necessary aspect in modern Western tradition.
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Extra info for Averroes: His Life, Works, and Influence (Great Islamic Writings)
However, if we probe this argument carefully, we will find that the atomic theory The Critique of Asharite Theology 29 upon which it rests is intractable, not only as far as the general public is concerned, but even as regards skilled logicians. T h e same is true of their proposition that the world is temporal or created in time (muhdath), since the question can be raised with respect to its creator in time (mubdith): is he temporal or eternal? " As for the argument from contingency, it is purely gratuitous, as we have seen, since the proposition that the world is contingent is rooted in our ignorance of the causes which determine the natures of existing entities, and contradicts the wisdom of the Creator who has ordered the world rationally.
Cf. Talkhir Kitib al-Maqdat, in Jihami, Talkhis Mantiq Aristu I , p. 24. 3 4 Averroes six categories of motion; generation and its opposite, which is corruption; growth, whose opposite is diminution, alteration or change of quality; and finally motion in place (locomotion) or rest. H e concludes that all forms of motion or change may be described as alteration, except l o c ~ m o t i o n . ~ It is well-known that the core of Aristotelian logic is the theory of the syllogism, embodied in the Analytica Posteriora, called in the Arabic sources the Book of Demonstration (KitZb al-Burbin).
T h e material cause may be taken as the middle term of a demonstration. in so far as the middle 8. ,p. 461 Logic and Theory of Knowledge 39 term is analogous to the matter of a demonstration and is common to both the major and the minor terms. Thus, if it is asked, why does the animal perish, the answer would be that it is made u p of contraries. ', the answer would be because it is equal to the other two angles of that triangle. ' the answer would be because of the murder of ' U t h m k , the third caliph.
Averroes: His Life, Works, and Influence (Great Islamic Writings) by Majid Fakhry