By Pierre Miquel
Книга по истории Европы, описывает период с 1450 по 1550 гг.
Содержит большое число иллюстраций по культуре и быту европейцев в эпоху великих географических открытий.
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Extra resources for Au temps des grandes decouvertes: 1450-1550
I am describing an evolving idea of violence as it has been acknowledged in various generic texts drawn from sociology, philosophy, political theory, psychoanalysis, and literature. In general schematic terms this "idea" can be seen to be possessed of two complementary theoretical positions. The first, labeled "structuralist-functionalist" by sociologists, might better be termed an "exceptionalist" or "irrationalist" theory of violence, a theory whose distinguishing characteristic is the assumption that social and political violence is in some degree deviant.
As such, it is a veritable baptism by blood, and this is one of the prevalent beliefs that I shall scrutinize. For advocates and critics alike it is a problem in literature, literary criticism, and ethical and social philosophy. Various thinkers, notably Sorel, Gramsci, Anthony Giddens, and Foucault, have considered violence both in relationship to the maintenance of liberal, fascist, and socialist states and in its revolutionary and liberatory potential. The postwar critique of the Enlightenment associated also with Horkheimer and Adorno (1944), a critique that may already have reached its apex, has addressed the ideological rationalizations of "values," which have too long presented themselves as free of force or have, in a rationalist manner, predicated their privilege on a distinction between persuasion, the good, and force.
Rather than genuine threats, which are usually found in the practices and personages of the regimes themselves). For there are two ways of responding to crisis (Girard calls these "sacrificial" crises and points out that victims are after all arbitrary, surrogate victims rather than the responsible parties): the first might be a public sacrificial act of catharsis; the other would be simply denial. Nothing is wrong; the threat has been dealt with; there is nothing to see. Often public response is a strange admixture of the two; at the same time Jews were everywhere and publicly castigated by the Nazi regime and its goons, at the same time Joseph Goebbels was raving about the sublime historical accomplishment of the Final Solution, the Nazi bureaucracy was striving to erase the very memory of its actions.
Au temps des grandes decouvertes: 1450-1550 by Pierre Miquel