By Eugene Raikhel
Bringing anthropological views to undergo on habit, the members to this crucial assortment spotlight the contingency of dependancy as a class of human wisdom and event. in keeping with ethnographic examine carried out in websites from alcohol remedy clinics in Russia to Pentecostal dependancy ministries in Puerto Rico, the essays are associated by way of the individuals' awareness to the dynamics—including the cultural, clinical, felony, non secular, own, and social—that form the that means of "addiction" specifically settings. They research the way it is known and skilled between pros operating within the legal justice method of a rural West Virginia neighborhood; Hispano citizens of recent Mexico's Espanola Valley, the place the speed of heroin overdose is likely one of the optimum within the usa; homeless girls partaking in an outpatient habit treatment application within the Midwest; machine-gaming addicts in Las Vegas, and so forth. The collection's editors recommend "addiction trajectories" as an invaluable rubric for reading the altering meanings of dependancy throughout time, position, associations, and person lives. Pursuing 3 fundamental trajectories, the individuals exhibit how dependancy comes into being as an item of data, a website of healing intervention, and a resource of subjective experience.
Contributors. Nancy D. Campbell, E. Summerson Carr, Angela Garcia, William Garriott, Helena Hansen, Anne M. Lovell, Emily Martin, Todd Meyers, Eugene Raikhel, A. Jamie Saris, Natasha Dow Schüll
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My concern here is about these experiences of loss and memories of it, how intersecting forms of history come to bear on the present, and how heroin use—and overdose in particular— exposes the painful recognition that the future has been swallowed up by the past. ’’ It designates a psychic process to loss where the mourner is able to work gradually through grief, reaching a deﬁnite conclusion whereby the lost object or ideal is essentially let go and the mourner able to move on. Melancholy, by contrast, designates a kind of mourning without end.
Moreover, many of these modalities of therapy and harm reduction, ranging from mutual-help movements modeled on aa to therapeutic communities to methadone 24 RAIKHEL AND GARRIOTT maintenance therapy and needle-exchange programs, are also embedded in or associated with larger institutional conﬁgurations and transnational projects (Walby 2008). These projects, in turn, can have profound effects on how issues are framed and addressed locally. To take only the most obvious example, the rise of the hiv/aids epidemic and the subsequent development of an assemblage of organizations, institutions, policies, and techniques to address it has had profound effects on the management of drug dependence, bringing the spectrum of harm-reduction approaches to the mainstream and, in some cases, shifting the moral valence surrounding intravenous drug users by reframing them as at-risk (Bourgois 2000).
Despite the increasing reliance on metaphors of chronic disease, the motivating factor behind drug recovery, in practical terms, is invariably understood as personal choice or will. This is largely due to two factors: ﬁrst, the prevailing Twelve Step model of recovery, which emphasizes personal power over addiction (made possible through the sustained reﬂection and vigilance over past behavior—what is described as a ‘‘moral inven44 ANGELA GARCIA tory’’—as well as the personal act of ‘‘surrender’’ to a ‘‘higher power’’); and second, the ever expanding punitive approach to addiction, which emphasizes the addict’s capacity to reason and, therefore, control her drug-using behavior.
Addiction Trajectories by Eugene Raikhel